Maguire G Justin, July 2022. 


Inflammation is arguably the biggest contributing factor toward cellular ageing, yet most are unaware of how to negate excessive inflammatory outcomes within their bodies. Glycans are chain-like structures that are composed of single sugar molecules linked together by chemical bonds1, which are also associated with the early signs of age-related diseases. Estrogen has the ability to reduce glycans2, an ability in which estrogen’s roles in modulating neurotransmitters and hormones may be contributing to its anti-ageing effect. This article serves to provide insight into the important role estrogen plays in influencing behaviour, focusing on the diverse impacts that different estrogen types and respective receptors have upon physiology. Additionally, further resources are explained how one may improve the functionality of estrogen by supporting hepatic and gastrointestinal health.
 
Properties of Estrogen 
 
The physiological properties and reactions of estrogen fall into a wide category of effects, some of which we will discuss in greater detail later in the article. To gain an appreciation of the importance of estrogen, it is necessary to look at the huge range of its effects on the human body, which are highlighted below.

In women, estrogen:

  • creates the endometrium
  • regulates the menstrual cycle
  • reduces vaginal dryness

In both men and women, estrogen:

  • Slows bone loss
  • Anti-ageing 
  • Uplifts mood
  • Lowers LDL
  • Increases HDL
  • Reduces Lipoprotein (a) and homocysteine
  • Positive effect on neurotransmitters
  • Supports memory and motivation 
  • Supports puberty development
  • Reduces incidence of heart attack
  • Increases progesterone receptor sensitivity
  • Increases sexual desire

Signs and symptoms of low estrogen

As a man, I never used to think that estrogen deficiency was something I needed to consider yet it is important to know that a deficiency of estrogen influences both men and women, in particular as regards cardiovascular and psychological health. A few common symptoms of low estrogen are as follows :

  • hot flashes/night sweats (in both men and women!!!)
  • sleep disturbance
  • anxiety
  • depression 
  • memory loss/lapses
  • emotional instability
  • brain fog
  • vaginal dryness
  • low libido (in both men and women!!!!)
  • headaches (one of the biggest neglected contributing factors to migraines!)
  • weight gain 
  • heart palpitations
  • hair loss
  • painful intercourse 
  • elevated blood pressure
  • dry skin/wrinkles
  • joint pain 

Types of estrogen and estrogen receptors 

There are three types of estrogen in human physiology:

  • estradiol 
  • estrone; and
  • estriol 

Additionally, there are two types of estrogen receptors (ER) in the human body:

  • ER beta; and
  • ER alpha 

At particular stages of a woman’s life, specific types of estrogen predominate, specifically::

  • estriol during times of pregnancy 
  • estradiol in pre-menopausal women; and 
  • estrone in post-menopausal women

The activity of the different estrogen receptors produces a wide variety of effects on physiology and neuroendocrine activity. Increased activity of ER alpha has been shown to induce carcinogenic cell growth in breast tissue3 therefore to avoid oncogenesis it is paramount to modulate levels of estrogens likely to activate ER alpha.

Each estrogen exhibits a unique affinity for specific ER receptors, namely:

  • estradiol binds to both ER alpha and beta
  • estrone binds predominantly to ER alpha; and
  • estriol binds predominantly to ER beta.

When considering bio-identical hormone therapy in those who have a history or family history of cancer, it is, therefore, safer to opt for estriol given its lack of affinity for ER alpha receptors.

Estrogen’s influence on neurochemistry and neurological health

Estradiol has been shown to reduce neuroinflammation and to protect the cortex, striatum and hippocampus of the brain4.
Given that:

  1. the cortex is responsible for perception and awareness
  2. the striatum is responsible for maintaining motivation and the reward link associated with neuroplasticity and
  3. the hippocampus is largely responsible for memory recall

It is clear that estrogen plays a pivotal role in sustaining and preserving the optimal functionality of the brain.  

ER alpha also serves an important purpose in promoting the output of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA), dopamine, neuropeptide Y, glutamate, neurotensin and even somatostatin5. Potential for neuronal excitation is therefore closely linked to the activity of ER alpha and the respective availability of estrogens associated with that receptor. 

Every action has a reaction, a cause and an effect: and in any situation where we excite the nervous system, some level of inflammation will ensue. ER beta then steps in to modulate any potential excessive ER alpha activity by promoting the inhibitory neurotransmitters oxytocin and serotonin6, which put the brakes on to reduce neuroinflammation and stop the brain from burning itself up.

Both ER alpha and beta are essential in modulating NMDA receptors7 which facilitates glutamate’s role within the hippocampus to improve memory recall. Where excessive glutamate activity causes neuroinflammation and the associated depletion of antioxidants, GABA acts as an antagonist to excessive glutamate activity, thereby neutralizing the likelihood of neurodegeneration. ER beta activity modulates the activity of GABAb receptors8, and this balanced activity of ER alpha and beta receptors serves to facilitate improved cognitive function in addition whilst negating the potential of excitotoxicity. 

Estrogen metabolites through hydroxyl pathway

Depending on the health and activity of the liver, estrogen can be metabolized into either beneficial or detrimental metabolites. Sulfation and glucuronidation form vital conjugation pathways of hormonal metabolism and when the function of these pathways becomes compromised DNA damage can result. 

There are three hydroxylated estrogen metabolites:

  • 4-OH-E1: most toxic estrogen metabolite which may instigate DNA damage/mutation (Often estrone is metabolized through this pathway) 
  • 2-OH-E1: aids in DNA repair, anti-inflammatory properties and modulates glycan activity. 
  • 16-OH-E1: Increases protein binding, may render other hormones ineffective and reduce receptor activation throughout endocrine complexes.

In order to support the liver’s ability to optimally metabolise estrogen the following nutrients are essential:

Phase one liver detoxification nutrients (Modification)

  • B-complex
  • Vitamin A, C, E, D3
  • Folinic acid
  • Milk thistle
  • Citrus bioflavonoids
  • Antioxidants
  • Thiols (garlic/onions)
  • Copper, Selenium, Zinc and Manganese

Phase two liver detoxification nutrients (conjugation)

  • Calcium  d-glucarate
  • Amino acids
  • Cruciferous vegetables 
  • MSM
  • N-acetyl-Cysteine 

High estrogen does not mean estrogen efficiency, on the contrary, high estrogen levels may be associated with unwanted xenoestrogens – foreign chemicals with a similar structure to estrogen –  being present within the body, Xenoestrogens disrupt natural feedback mechanisms, which instruct regulatory outcomes of optimal and healthy hormone production. Essentially, therefore you can have a situation of high total estrogen yet still exhibit symptoms of estrogen deficiency. It is therefore very important to support the detoxification of harmful estrogens.

Some possible causes of high  estrogen are as follows:

  • obesity
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • peri-menopause
  • liver disease
  • high-fat diet
  • estrogen replacement (not moderated correctly!!!)
  • ovarian tumours
  • high beef consumption (if not organic or grass-fed)
  • medication 

Assessing the state of your estrogen health takes more than simply looking into blood tests. Although blood chemistry analysis is useful to determine total hormone levels,  hormone metabolism and activity are best understood through the utilization of a dried hormone urine analysis. Both blood chemistry and dried hormone analysis are therefore required to capture the full picture of estrogen activity and concentration in the body.

For those living in the UK I would suggest the following two tests through Omnos 

https://app.omnos.me/all-tests/blood/bloods-sex-hormone-female

https://app.omnos.me/all-tests/blood/bloods-sex-hormore-male

https://app.omnos.me/all-tests/hormones/hormones
Use this code to receive a 5% discount on the tests once you check out:  AUTONOMIC

For those looking for nutrient support to aid the liver I recommend the following:

Integrative therapeutics Lipotropic formula/complex 

  1. Protocol’s Protoclear
  2. Designs for health’s LV&GB complex

along with one of the following:

  1. Integrative therapeutic’s blue heron
  2. Metagenics Metafiber
  3. Allergy Research Group Gastrocleanse 

For those looking to help eliminate high xenoestrogens and restore optimal health estrogen production I recommend one of the following:

  1. Designs for health: Fem guard and balance
  2. Vitamia: Fem Balance
  3. Vital Nutrients: Hormone balance 

For more information as to how you can restore your mental and physical health through rectifying hormonal imbalances, reach out to info@autonomiccoaching.com or visit www.autonomiccoaching.com

References 

  1. GlyTech Inc., 2018. What are glycans. Available at: https://www.glytech-inc.com/glycan/what-are-glycans/ (sourced 20 July 2022) 
  2. Jurić, J., Kohrt M, W., Kifer, D., Pezer, M.,  Nigrovic A, P.,  Lauc, G. June 2020. Effects of estradiol on biological age measured using the glycan age index. Available at: https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.06.25.20138503v1.full (accessed 20 July 2022)
  3. Liu, Y., Ma, H. and Yao, J. March 2020. ERalpha, a key target for cancer therapy: A review. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7073439/#:~:text=Estrogen%20receptor%20%CE%B1%20(ER%CE%B1)%20is,as%20well%20as%20cancer%20inhibition. (sourced 20 July 2022)
  4. Bryant D, N. and Dorsa D, M. Aug 2010. Roles of estrogen receptors alpha and beta in sexually dimorphic neuroprotection against glutamate toxicity. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2949441/ (accessed 20 July 2022) 
  5. Kelly M, J., and Ronnekleiv O, K. Mar 2009. Control of CNS neuronal excitability by estrogens via membrane initiated signalling. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2701913/ (sourced 20 July 2022)
  6. Walf A, A., Frye A, C. Jun 2006. A review and update of mechanisms of estrogen in the hippocampus and amygdala for anxiety and depression behaviour. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3624621/ (sourced 20 July 2022) 
  7. Tang, B., Ji, Y., Traub R, J. Feb 2008. Estrogen alters spinal NMDA receptor activity via PKA signalling pathway in a visceral pain model in the rat. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2543943/ (sourced 20 July 2022) 
  8. Saleh M, T. and Connel B, J. Jun 2003. Estrogen-induced autonomic effects are mediated by NMDA and GABA(a) receptors in the parabrachial nucleus. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/10768012_Estrogen-induced_autonomic_effects_are_mediated_by_NMDA_and_GABAA_receptors_in_the_parabrachial_nucleus (sourced 20 July 2022) 

Maguire G Justin, Nov2022.

Presents

Cholesterol and its influence on behaviour

Introduction – historically misinformed cholesterol

Cardiovascular disease has historically been associated with cholesterol, leading the public into demonizing this protective sterol, resulting in the misappropriate use of statins and fibrates[1]. Pharmacology is by no means an evil entity, and in some cases, the use of drugs is essential to enable health to flourish. Tackling high or low cholesterol should however be approached through a broader lens, one in which underlying immunological and endocrinological activity is considered. Additionally, suppressing cholesterol may insight unwanted outcomes of psychological distress, this article serves to enlighten intricacies that otherwise may not be considered in the role cholesterol plays within the management of both molecular and psychological health.

What is cholesterol

Cholesterol is a sterol biosynthesized by all animal cells, providing structure to cell membranes[2].  Cholesterol was first discovered by François Poulletier de la Salle in 1796 and later between 1913-1929 lipoproteins were identified by Nikolay Anichov, accelerating studies of cardiovascular lipid studies into full swing with contributions respectively by Joseph Goldstein and Michael Brown in 1974[3].

There is but one type of cholesterol with different types of protein carriers, each of which plays a role in maintaining biological processes in the body. Most of our cholesterol is synthesized by our bodies, with only one-third coming from dietary sources[4]. Cholesterol has a wide range of functions, including:

  1. The structural component of cell membranes
  2. Raw material to produce bile acids to enable absorption of fat-soluble vitamins
  3. Raw material (precursor) to the production of steroid hormones
  4. A component of myelin, which protects our nerves
  5. Aids thermoregulation at a cellular level
  6. Involved in Vitamin D absorption from the skin

Thyroid and cortisol impact on mitochondria – impact on cholesterol

The state of the immune system dramatically impacts cholesterol synthesis and transport. Immunological compromise impacts cholesterol health, often leading to initial elevation and in some cases depletion[5]. Compromised mitochondria function has been associated with different pathologies[6] linked to dysregulated cholesterol levels. Thyroid hormones play a crucial role in the regulation of mitochondria activity[7], enabling mitochondrion to support the production of adrenal hormones[8] thus modulating communication between both the peripheral and central nervous systems. Thus, we need to understand the activity of metabolic hormones when we are looking into the causative factors of poor cholesterol profiles.

Cortisol dominance is often expressed in cases of hypothyroidism[9], given that cortisol instigates elevated levels of oxidative stress[10], increases in LDL (low-density lipoprotein) can closely be associated with both elevated cortisol and poor thyroid hormone levels. Common causes for elevated cortisol[11] and insufficient thyroid hormone levels[12]can be traced back to both hepatic and gastrointestinal health.

Microbiome diversity and our nervous system develop at the same pace[13], thus alterations to our gut flora due to stress directly influences reactivity in the nervous system to stress. Poorly modulated stress leads to dysregulation of thyroid and cortisol function, resulting in mitochondria dysfunction which leads cholesterol metabolism to focus on repairing micro-abrasions caused by oxidative stress, resulting in atherosclerosis and eventual cardiac health compromise.

Recommended testing

  • Omnos Thyroid panel
  • DUTCH – omnos
  • Stool tests – omnos

Low cholesterol and the dangers of poor mental health

Much focus is given to elevated cholesterol, yet low cholesterol is neglected as a major cause of disease[14]. Causes of low cholesterol could be linked back to ongoing immunological compromise, leading the body into a position of exhaustion, and not being able to synthesize enough cholesterol. Other factors that may induce low cholesterol include:

  • Hyperthyroidism – linked to hepatic compromise of sulfation pathways
  • Liver disease
  • Gastritis
  • Intestinal hyperpermeability
  • Malnutrition
  • Manganese deficiency
  • Genetic enzyme disorders
  • Iron overload – hemochromatosis

ASD (Autism spectrum disorder) impacts the way in which a person is able to learn, communicate and interact with the world. Ranging from anger to social isolation, ASD impacts the way in which a person is able to fully express themselves in a safe and productive manner. Low cholesterol was found to in 19% percent of ASD cases within a meta-analysis of this condition[15]. Improving how the body is able to manage and produce cholesterol in those affected by ASH may provide relief from inflammatory conditions commonly associated with the condition.

ADHD (Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ) ranges in 3 broad classes of expression, all of which limit a person’s ability to feel calm and peaceful within moments of emotional and intellectual challenge. ADHD often leads those affected by the condition into impulsive and at times destructive behaviour. Disruptive and aggressive behaviour has a close association with children impacted by ADHD. Through investigative analysis across the United States of America, children with low cholesterol levels were threefold more likely to have been suspended or expelled compared to those with higher cholesterol[16]. Identifying causative factors which may compromise innate cholesterol metabolism may provide relief to aggression/frustration often experienced in those with ADHD.

Through case series retrospective analysis, it was found that patients with lower cholesterol had a higher tendency to attempt to commit suicide[17]. Cholesterol plays a contributing role within the available concentration of serotonin in cerebral spinal fluid, thus improving symptoms of depression and lowering the likelihood of suicide. 

Through retrospective analysis, it was found those addicted to cocaine had low cholesterol profiles[18]. An investigative analysis of both genetic vulnerability and current physiological function may provide insight into what additional preventative measures could be incorporated in the fight against addiction, namely restoring immunological reactivity and the associated impact on cholesterol.

Improving cholesterol requires focus on not only the intake of cholesterol but the functionality of physiological and immunological systems both of which play an integral role within a homeostatic balance of cholesterol metabolism. For those with low cholesterol consuming enough cholesterol from dietary sources may prove beneficial in supporting the body’s need for this sterol.

Foods that are  high in cholesterol include the following:

  • Eggs – 2 yolks = 500mgs of cholesterol
  • Brain – 3oz = 1000mg cholesterol
  • Liver – 3oz = 372mg

Conclusion

Cholesterol gives the body the ability to regulate and repair. Dysregulated cholesterol metabolism not only leads one into possibly cardiac disease but also may instigate a whole host of behavioural disorders. Approaching the reformation of cholesterol needs to consider more than just incorporating statins or fibrates (although they are also useful in specific situations), rather restoring cholesterol function entails looking into the whole body and cellular metabolism. Through the identification of internal environment disruptors (heavy metals, toxins, pathogenic flora, mycotoxins, candida, etc..) we can support, remove, detoxify and restore cellular health, in particular, that of the mitochondria, thus providing a greater opportunity for lipid health renewal and lowered incident of mood or behavioural disorders.

Kris Gethin testimonial


[1] Soliman, GA. 2018. Dietary cholesterol and lack of evidence in cardiovascular disease. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29914176/ (Sourced: 28 October 2022)

[2] National library of medicine: National center for biotechnology information. Oct 2022. Compound summary: Cholesterol. Available at: https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/5997 (sourced 28 October 2022)

[3] Kuijpers, P. 2021. History in medicine: the story of cholesterol, lipids and cardiology. Available at: https://www.escardio.org/Journals/E-Journal-of-Cardiology-Practice/Volume-19/history-in-medicine-the-story-of-cholesterol-lipids-and-cardiology#:~:text=Fran%C3%A7ois%20Poulletier%20de%20la%20Salle%20(1719%2D1788)%20first%20identified,cholesterol%20for%20the%20first%20time. (sourced 28 October 2022)

[4] Kapourchali, R F. Surendiran, G. Goulet, A. Moghadasian, H M. Oct 2016. The Role of Dietary Cholesterol in Lipoprotein Metabolism and Related Metabolic Abnormalities: A Mini-review. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26055276/#:~:text=Cholesterol%20plays%20a%20vital%20role,the%20body%20(endogenous%20cholesterol). (sourced 28 October 2022)

[5] Anderson, J C. 2018. Impact of dietary cholesterol on the pathophysiology of infectious and autoimmune disease. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6024721/ (sourced 28 October)

[6] Naviaux, K R. Mitochondrion. 2019. Perspective: Cell danger response biology – the new science that connects environmental health with mitochondria and the rising tide of chronic illness. Available at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1567724919302922 (sourced 28 October 2022)

[7] Sinha, R H. Singh, B. Zhou, J. Wu, Y. Farah, L B. Ohba, K. Lesmana, R. Gooding, J. Bay, BH. Yen, M P. Autophay 2015. Thyroid hormone induction of mitochondrial activity is coupled by mitophagy via ROS-AMPK-ULK1 signalling. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4590606/ (sourced 28 October 2022)

[8] Lam, M. Lam, C. mitochondria’s impact on adrenal gland diseases. Available at: https://www.drlamcoaching.com/adrenal-fatigue/complications/mitochondria-impact-on-adrenal-gland-diseases/ (sourced 28 October 2022)

[9] Gassama, S. Ndoye, O. Mbodj, M. Akala, A. Cisse, F. Niang, M. Ndoye, R. 2000. Serum cortisol level variations in thyroid diseases. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14666786/#:~:text=Excessive%20catabolism%20can%20lead%20to,often%20allow%20normal%20cortisol%20values. (sourced 28 October 2022)

[10] Simsek, S. Yuksel, T. Kaplan, I. Uysal, C. Aktas, H. ‘Pyschiatry Investigation 2016’. The levels of cortisol and oxidative stress and DNA damage in child and adolescent victims of sexual abuse with or without post traumatic stress disorder. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5128349/#:~:text=It%20was%20reported%20that%20oxidative,axis%20dysfunction%20and%20mental%20disorders.&text=It%20was%20also%20reported%20that,production%20of%20reactive%20oxygen%20species. (sourced 28 October 2022)

[11] Panduro, A. Iniguez, R I. Sepulveda-Villegas, M. Roman, S. Genes, emotions and gut microbiota: The next frontier for gastroenterologist. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Gut-brain-axis-and-dysbiosis-A-The-gut-microbiota-maintains-a-two-way-communication_fig1_317093451 (sourced: 28 October 2022)

[12] Knezevic, J. Starchl, C. Berisha, T A. Amrein, K. Thyroid-gut-axis: How does the microbiota influence thyroid function? Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7353203/ (sourced 28 October 2022)

[13] Yahfoufi, N. Matar, C. Ismail, N. 2020. Adolescence and aging: impact of adolescence inflammatory stress and microbiota alterations on brain development, aging, and neurodegeneration. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31917834/ (sourced 28 October 2022)

[14] Budzynski, J. Tojek, K. Wustrau, B. Czerniak, B. Winiarski, P. Korzycka-Wilinska, W. Banaszkiewicz, Z. 2018. The cholesterol paradox among inpatients – retrospective analysis of medical documentation. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6374572/ (sourced 28 October 2022)

[15] Tiery, E. Bukelis, I. Thompson, E R. Ahmed, K. Aneja, A. Kratz, L. Kelly, I R.  Am J of Med Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric genetics Vol 141B, Issue 6, Pg 666-668, 2006. Abnormalities of cholesterol metabolism in autism – spectrum disorders. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2553243/ (sourced 28 October 2022)

[16] Zhang, J. Muldoon, F M. McKeown, E R. Cuffe, P S. Am J Epidemiol. 2005. Association of serum cholesterol and history of school suspension among school-aged children and adolescents in the United States. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15781958/ (sourced 28 October 2022)

[17] Modai, I. Valevski, A. Dror, S. Weizman, A. J Clin Psychiatry. 1994. Serum cholesterol levels and suicidal tendencies in psychiatric inpatients. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8071280/ (sourced 28 October 2022)

[18] Buydens-Branchey, L. Branchey, M. Psychosom Med. 2003. Association between low plasma levels of cholesterol and relapse in cocaine addicts. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12554819/ (sourced 28 October 2022)

Maguire G Justin, July 2022.

Time for another word picture that hopefully leads to some curiosity. Let’s say you, a friend, a family member or that co-worker Greg who won’t stop recommending their favourite book, is struggling with weight gain. However, it’s not just weight gain. They, or you, are just out of it. They are not as part of the conversation as they usually are. When asking if they are okay, or vice versa, they say everything is fine and they are just stressed. Of course, we all experience stress on this blue marble of ours, but surely that can’t be all? There seems to be this monkey on their shoulder, but it’s not their shoulder. It’s more like the jerk is hanging around their neck.

Weight gain is well known to have an association with a struggling underactive thyroid1; however, did you know that poor thyroid activity contributes to depression, infertility, anxiety and poor cognition2? If not, you’re in for a few knowledge bombs about the thyroid that will not only blow brain fog out of your mind but also improve the way you tolerate stress.

Thyroid function is fully appreciated when we appreciate the impact that stress and cortisol have on production, conversion, and release. Our Nervous systems are highly organized networks, providing feedback to either accelerate or halt the function of our metabolism, including that of brain function! Two major systems namely: The HPA axis and HPT axis work in concert with one another to monitor energy requirements for physiological function, essentially influencing the activity of our cell’s powerplants, the mitochondria3. Excessive stress caused by lifestyle and environmental factors compromises communication within both metabolic networks, setting off a cascade of metabolic dysfunction. Below are two diagrams that accurately depict how stressors negatively impact the function of both the HPA axis and HPT axis:

With poor feedback mechanisms of thyroid hormone and function, hypothyroidism develops. There are namely three classifications in which hypothyroidism can be identified4:

  • Primary hypothyroidism – cases in which the brain is screaming at both the thyroid and liver to produce thyroid hormone, but little hormone is produced. In these cases, high levels of oxidative stress are often seen, decreasing the availability of vital precursors required for thyroid hormone production.
  • Secondary hypothyroidism – cases in which the brain is not stressed but the thyroid and peripheral organs are unable to make thyroid hormone. In these cases, stress often impedes both the thyroid and peripheral organ’s ability to produce and convert thyroid hormone, often, due to the impact TDO (tryptophan 2, 3 dioxygenase) has on depleting a vital enzyme required for thyroid hormone conversion.
  • Peripheral hypothyroidism – cases in which cortisol levels elevate to the point of which the liver uses the same enzyme required to convert thyroxine (T4) into triiodothyronine (T3) but instead converts thyroxine into rT3 (reverse T3). Reverse T3 has a higher binding effect on thyroid receptors and increased the ability to lower the availability and production of triiodothyronine.

Additionally, Autoimmune Hashimoto’s – in cases of autoimmune thyroid compromise the immune system has become increasingly dysregulated and as such our body’s own antibodies start to attack our thyroid gland. Often toxins and environmental pollutants are to blame, in which case cortisol is often flooded to contend with the stress of toxins, thus inhibiting innate immunity and increasing activity of adaptive immunity to recognize a perceived threat, that of our proteins being released by the thyroid gland.


Women seem to be at the highest risk of developing hypothyroidism, with 2-8 times the volume of hypothyroid cases reportedly being associated with women5. Additionally, poor thyroid activity impacts the fertility of women, due to the synergy thyroid hormone plays in the production of progesterone and regulation of prolactin. From painful periods to miscarriage, poor production of progesterone has been associated with multiple female endocrinological pathologies.

Increasing levels of prolactin do not only affect women but also have an impact on men too! Prolactin levels play an inhibitory role in the production and regulation of dopamine6, as such when thyroid levels decline and prolactin levels increase, the likelihood of impulsive and habit-forming actions is increased, increasing the development of not only cognitive impairment by psychological distress too. Mental health performance, therefore, is heavily reliant on healthy thyroid hormone function.



Below are a few lifestyles and dietary considerations one can implement to address poor thyroid function:

DIETARY CHANGES

  • Eating principles: low sugar, low fat (saturated animal proteins), high fibre, low cholesterol
  • Calorie percentages: 70% complex carbohydrates, protein 12-15%, fat 15-18%
  • Therapeutic foods: oats, kelp, seaweed, artichokes, onions, garlic, dulse, Swiss chard, turnip greens, egg yolks, wheat germ, cod roe, lecithin, sesame seed butter
  • Fresh juices: carrot, celery, and/or spinach with powdered kelp or dulse
  • Avoid goitrogens (which can reduce thyroid function) unless cooked: broccoli, turnips, cabbage, carrots, kale, rutabaga, soybean, spinach, peanuts, yams, radishes, millet, green peppers, beets, celery, lettuce, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, collards, kohlrabi, peaches, pears, strawberries, apples, apricots, blackberries, raspberries, prunes, cherries, honeydew, grapefruit, grapes, oranges, peas, sorghum, bamboo shoots
  • Avoid known food sensitivities

HYDROTHERAPY

  • Short cold spray to thyroid after warm bath/shower Or
  • Cold mitten friction to thyroid after bath/shower
  • Alternating hot and cold compresses to thyroid gland daily: Hot compresses moulded to neck for 3 minutes hot followed by 30 seconds to 1 minute of cold compresses. Repeat 3-5 times
  • Cold shower to middle and lower back to stimulate adrenals
  • Constitutional hydrotherapy treatment to help stimulate digestion

OTHER CONSIDERATIONS

  • Do not use an electric blanket-the body’s metabolism will be slightly raised in the body must generate its own heat to keep warm
  • Exercise daily to stimulate the thyroid gland and elevate the body’s metabolic rate

Struggling with ADHD, depression, infertility, and weight loss may all have an association in the way of which your thyroid is functioning. Before you commit to a series of anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-depressants, and even possibly harmful hormone fertility therapy, I would highly recommend you run a comprehensive thyroid hormone panel. For those reading this email-based in the UK, Omnos provide an affordable solution https://app.omnos.me/all-tests/blood/bloods-thyroid-complete and for those living in the United States of America I would suggest a panel offering through Ulta Lab tests https://www.ultalabtests.com/test/thyroid-complete

Analysis of findings can be illusive, as such I am offering a free analysis to the first 10 enquiries, based on their thyroid hormones findings provided through either Ulta labs or Omnos. In order to take advantage of this opportunity email the following to info@autonomiccoaching.com

Name:
Surname:
Email address:
Major concerns:

And complete these initial provisional symptoms exam https://www.autonomiccoaching.com/provisional-symptoms-diagnostic/


I look forward to helping anyone reading this article, struggling with the symptoms of a poor thyroid, which for those of you unaware include but not limited to the following symptoms:

  • Constipation
  • Abdominal cramps and bloating.
  • PMS
  • Cold intolerance
  • Muscle cramps and tenderness.
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Brain fog
  • Depression
  • Weight gain
  • Seasonal exacerbation of symptoms.
  • Infertility
  • Miscarriage
  • Frequent cold and flus
  • Low libido
  • Absence of sweating
  • Brittle nails
  • Easy bruising
  • Coarse, dry hair
  • Dry skin and scalp
  • Hair loss of the scalp,
  • groin, outer eyebrows. YOUR
  • Pale, cold, scaly, and wrinkled skin.
  • Poor wound healing
  • Swelling of the hands,
  • face and eyelids.
  • Yellow/ivory skin colour
  • Itchy skin
  • Immune system disruption 

References

  1. Sanyal, D. and Raychaudhuri, M. Hypothyroidism and obesity an intriguing link. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4911848/
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  3. Akil, H. Relation between the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Thyroid (HPT) Axis and the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) Axis during Repeated Stress. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/7723683_Relation_between_the_Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Thyroid_HPT_Axis_and_the_Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal_HPA_Axis_during_Repeated_Stress#:~:text=Previous%20work%20has%20indicated%20that,thyroid%20(HPT)%20axis%20regulation.
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Whole grains, fruit and legumes form a large part of dietary trends setting the scene in a new plant-based culture; however, the consumption of these foods may be detrimental to your health! Inflammation is by far the leading contributing factor to a whole host of diseases, ranging from anaemia all the way to autoimmune compromise, yet how does eating ‘healthy’ contribute to the rise of inflammation within our given lives and bodies?

Given the rapid rise of autoimmune compromise along with obesity and chronic inflammation, our efforts to eat healthily have increased, yet many of us are still finding ourselves in a state of pain, fatigue, and mitochondrial compromise. Now, what if I were to tell you that eating white rice instead of whole grains may benefit your weight loss and improve your overall state of inflammation? Think about, Asians have been eating rice for centuries, and up until the recent introduction of the ‘western’ ideal diet they have had the lowest incidence of diabetes, obesity and even cancer, certainly, there must be a few golden nuggets of information that we could integrate from their lifestyles into our own nutritional efforts? Well, truth be told, refining carbohydrates may be one of the biggest pieces of their health puzzle!

Lectins are protective proteins that bind to carbohydrates of certain plant foods, enabling a greater chance of survival of plants against the grazing of animals and in our case, humans. Foods such as legumes, whole grain products and even fruits picked before fully ripened contain high amounts of lectins. Given that lectins impact our mineral use, immunological reactions, and overall state of inflammation, aiming efforts to avoid lectin toxicity may prove paramount to lowering many of our nutritional and dietary concerns when trying to lose weight, improve energy and fix pervasive anaemia.

Eureka! The answers are always in the details, you see with all our modern-day fads and nutritional ‘remedies’ we have simply forgotten to ask the question why!

Why did so many all over the world strip the husks from grains before munching down on some sushi, well it’s pretty clever thinking if you ask me, rid the source of nature’s toxic defence (lectins) and presto your body does not have to deal with constant attack i.e. inflammation.

Here is a list of high lectin foods to avoid if you’re struggling with ANY inflammatory disorder:

  • Whole grains
  • Legumes (raw)
  • Tomatoes and peppers

And here are some good choices to incorporate on a low lectin plan

  • Broccoli/brussel sprouts
  • Leafy green veggies
  • Pasture-raised meats

Now the healthy picture doesn’t just stop at eating white rice…hahaha…. far from it! Excluding preservatives, particular sources of dairy (no, not all dairy is bad for you BTW) and opting from seasonal fruits, all provide immense benefit in regulating how your mitochondria regulate energy metabolism. Not so long ago, our ancestors ate in accordance with the seasons and for a due reason, you see our mitochondria respond to energy metabolism dependent on environmental climate and associated biochemicals produced in different seasons. Therefore, when we eat in accordance with what nature makes available, the likelihood of our mitochondria developing confusion drastically lowers along with mitochondrial associated diseases!

The modern diet feeds bacterial overgrowth, in my opinion, due to poor seasonal eating and excessive consumption of lectins throughout one’s diet. Stress in all forms suppresses healthy bacterial growth and liberates glucose, sugars which unwanted and unhealthy bacteria feed off to produce aldehydes!!!!

So exactly what are aldehydes, and why is it such a concern? Well without bogging you down with too much science, aldehydes are necessary for acetylation in the nervous system, if and only IF they are converted into acetyl Co-A. However, most cases of bacterial overgrowth deplete many of the nutrients required to have this conversion take place, leaving your liver in a state of excess aldehydes and a clogged detoxification pathway, ie non-alcoholic fatty liver!

Nonalcoholic fatty liver increases the potential of diabetes, loss of cognition, impaired sex hormone production and poor cholesterol metabolism. So…. if your gut is producing Aldehydes that are hijacking your liver’s ability to detox, guess what? You’re also going to have metabolic issues, i.e., mitochondrial dysfunction. Interestingly through a diagnostic I run called the organic acids test, we can distinguish if indeed your mitochondria have become dysfunctional due to either excessive bacterial overgrowth, yeast accumulation or even poor aldehyde detoxification!

I get it… you are trying to fix up bad habits and yet here again comes another health claim that may make you feel as though you’re thrown off track again, truly that’s not the objective! What is important is to ascertain what is ACTUALLY going on in your body, instead of taking the advice from others who may have never had to deal with inflammation, autoimmune compromise, depression, obesity or immense and intense brain fog.

I am dedicated to enlightening your efforts, providing objective findings that you can use to validate choice, choice which should not have your calorie starving only to continue to put on weight and feel awful. If you have tried everything from: ‘if it fits your macros’ to ‘Atkins’ and possibly the ‘lupus diet’ and yet you are still struggling, then it may be time for a more targeted approach to your health.

It may be time for Autonomic Coaching